The Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board was constituted under section 4 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 on 7th February 1975, with the objectives of prevention, and control of water pollution and maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water[j1] . Later, it was also entrusted with the responsibilities of prevention, control and abatement of Air Pollution under the provisions of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 has been enacted to make the State Board financially independent. Under this act the State Board has been given powers to collect Cess on the basis of water consumed by the industries etc.

Enactment of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 has further widened the scope of the activities of the Board. This Act being umbrella legislation, different rules for addressing the problems of various sectors have been enacted under this Act. The State Board is engaged in implementation of the rules made under the Environment Protection Act, 1986.